Geography of Ancient
Ancient Greece is the term used to
describe the Greek-speaking world in ancient times. It
refers not only to the geographical peninsula of modern
Greece, but also to areas of Hellenic culture that were
settled in ancient times by Greeks including Cyprus, the
Aegean coast of Turkey (then known as Ionia), Sicily and
southern Italy (known as Magna Graecia), and the scattered
Greek settlements on the coasts of what are now Albania,
Bulgaria, Egypt, Libya, southern France, southern Spain,
Catalonia, Georgia, Romania, and Ukraine.
Timeline of Ancient
There are no fixed or universally agreed upon dates for the
beginning or the end of the Ancient Greek period.
Traditionally, the Ancient Greek period was taken to begin with
the date of the first Olympic Games in 776 BC, but many
historians now extend the term back to about 1000 BC.
Modern Greek school-books date the "ancient times" as a
period of about 1000 years (from the catastrophe of Mycenae)
until the conquest of the country by the Romans. The timeline
is divided in four periods, based on styles of art as much as
culture and politics. The historical line starts with:
- The Greek Dark Ages (1100–800 BC). In this period
artists use geometrical schemes such as squares, circles,
lines to decorate amphoras and other pottery.
- The Archaic Period (800–500 BC) representing those
years when the artists made larger free-standing sculptures
in stiff, hieratic poses with the dreamlike "archaic
- The Classical Years (500–323 BC) when artists perfected
the style that since has been taken as exemplary:
"classical", such as the Parthenon.
- The Hellenistic Years which followed the conquests of
Alexander (323–146 BC), also known as Alexandrian. Aspects
of Hellenic civilization expanded to Egypt and Bactria and
the integration of Greece into the Roman Republic in 146
These dates are historians' conventions. Some writers treat
the Ancient Greek civilization as a continuum running until the
advent of Christianity in the third century AD.
Religion in Ancient
The ancient Greeks were a deeply religious people. They
worshipped many gods whom they
believed appeared in human form and yet were endowed with
superhuman strength and ageless beauty. The deities were depicted
either by themselves or in traditional mythological
situations in which they would interact with humans and a
broad range of minor deities, demi-gods and legendary